Etymology and Vocabulary
Many words in English are derived from the stems of Latin participles. Let’s look at some ways to recognize words that are derived from the stem of the present active participle.
i) oftentimes, words ending in –ant (e.g. tolerant tolerō, tolerāre) come from 1st-conjugation verbs; in
-ent from second-conjugation verbs (latent [lateō, latēre], patent [pateō, patēre], prevalent [praevaleō, praevalēre]) or third-conjugation verbs (agent [agēns], tangent [tangō, tangere]), -ient from fourth conjugation verbs, e.g. omniscient [omnēs sciō], prescient [praesciō, praescīre]).
ii) oftentimes, words ending in –um or –a come from the stem of the perfect passive participle—e.g. datum/data, errātum/errata
iii) in the next chapter we’ll take a look at some further uses of the future passive participle. For now, note that some female names come from it: Amanda, Miranda.
A nice phrase to learn, and one which employs two participles, is mūtātīs mūtandīs. It literally means “the changes that were about to be made having been made”—or more smoothly, “the necessary changes having been made.” We’ll look more closely at the uses of the future passive participle in the next chapter. For now, just note which two types of participle these forms are— mūtātīs is perfect passive and mūtandīs is future passive.
As always, categorize your vocabulary words by parts of speech and further by declension and conjugation as suitable. Then click on answer key to check your answers.
Listen to the audiofiles of the vocabulary words on pp. 150-151. Then write out, pronounce aloud, and commit these words to memory.
| arx, arcis (f)
| dux, ducis (m)
leader, guide; commander, general
| equus, -ī (m)
| hasta, -ae (f)
| īnsula, -ae (f)
| lītus, lītoris (n)
| mīles, mīlitis (m)
| ōrātor, ōrātōris (m)
| sacerdōs, sacerdōtis (m)
| aliquis, aliquid
someone, somebody, something
| quisquis, quidquid
| magnanimus, -a, -um
great-hearted, brave, magnanimous
in questions or negative clauses ever, at any time
| ēducō (1)
to bring up, educate
| gaudeō, gaudēre, gāvīsus sum
to be glad, rejoice
| ostendō, ostendere, ostendī, ostentum
adv. to exhibit, show, display
| petō, petere, petīvī, petītum
to seek, aim at, beg, beseech
| premō, premere, pressī, pressum
to press, press hard, pursue
| opprimō, opprimere, oppressī, opressum
to suppress, overwhelm, overpower, check
| vertō, vertere, vertī, versum
to turn; change
| āvertō, āvertere, āvertī, āversum
to turn away, avert
| revertō, revertere, revertī, reversum
to turn back